Once upon a time, age-old trees so high and dense hummed that obscured the sky. Black outcrops and wind-blown oaks emerged from the ground. Green decayed trunks, logs and roots were black on the green mosses, in the spring interwoven with tarpaulins of violet hepatica and white lily of the valley. The colorful, multicolored hats of mushrooms were colorfully shining in the sun. Frisky deers and proud deers fled hurriedly through the trees, listening to the vigilant lynx. High in the branches of the trees, constantly touring, various birds flickered. The mysterious silence of the Forest was interrupted by the impatient call of the cuckoo and the regular clatter of the woodpecker, sometimes strange and dangerous voices. The most important forest here were the hosts - wolves, wild boars, bison and bears.
In the fourteenth century, the Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław became the king of Poland. The Bialowieza Forest entered the hereditary crown estate and became the property of kings. The silence of the Forest disturbed the sounds of hunting horns when Władysław Jagiełło came to hunt in order to gather food supplies for the army, preparing for a battle with the Great Teutonic Order. He initiated the hunts that subsequent monarchs continued for centuries: Zygmunt August, Stefan Batory, August III Sas and Stanisław August Poniatowski.
The forest was protected as a royal property, and the most precious fragments of the backwoods were covered with special protection. They were looking for them in the villages around the Primeval Forest. By a spear of 1557 a new group of forest protection services - riflemen - was established, their duties and equipment were also determined. At that time, an exemplary system of protection and hunting economy was created.
Guarding the riches and borders of the forest was not an easy task due to its vastness and breadth. The supervision of the forest hampered the access to the specific use of forestry resources granted to the nobility, cities and clergy by the great Lithuanian princes and Polish kings. In the sixteenth century, the most common were the rights to mow hay in the forest meadows and the establishment of barci. Other rights to fish in rivers, construction of temporary huts or cattle grazing - they appeared less often, and the hunting rights and obtaining the building material for their own needs were a complete exception. In 1559, the royal commission revised the legitimacy of the entries into the Forest and at the same time defined its limits.
The borders of the Forest were covered with other villages: Witowo, Istok, Jahodnik, Dubicze Osoczne, Szostakowo, Kamień, Makówka, Narew. Borek, Chytra, Nowy Berezów, Nowy Kornin, Bujakowszczyzna and Usnarowszczyzna villages and the Wieżanka village appeared until 1611. Until 1616, Czyżyki, Trywieża farmstead and 4 small grannies of Life Credits called Putyski were established. In 1618, the church was founded in Nowy Berezów for new settlers. In 1670 Pasieka Górna and Dolna, today's streets of Hajnówka, which belonged to the Bielska Primeval Forest, grew up.
The Royal Order of 1639 defined and described the exact boundaries of the Forest, starting from the west, most at risk of settling: "Begins from the village of Orzeszkowa, the main wall from Bielskie forest, across the Leśnica river, the Białego forest country, to Judino Błota, from there to the Skarbosławki river, despite the village of Dubiny, up to Szatka Uroczyska, from here to Olchowy ... to the village of Mr. Masalski called Lewkowo. "The forest was surrounded by a chain of riflemen and sedentary buildings located on its border and divided into three quarters: Dmitrovskaya, Fawłowska and Orzeszkowska. : Judine Błota and Skarbosławka and the village of Dubiny are now part of our city.
Skarbosławka, which was designated as the headquarters of the guard, gave birth to our city. It is an area roughly between today's streets - 3 Maja, Rzeczna and Lipowa and the Leśna river. "Guard Hajnowska, from the name of the guard, whom King August II for the faithful servants gave to the ... For many years he guarded the forest, and variously to the act was inscribed as Hejna, then Heyny. After the death of Hejny, the act of torture is lost, appears Guard Hajnowska. " - Otton Hedemann wrote. In later years, the name Hajnowszczyzna appeared.
The servants of the royal guarded the borders of the Forest on a daily basis, they looked after her riches, breeding bees, and cultivating the land, when the bugle call of the royal trumpet was heard, all of them went hunting. "Young, broad-minded and skillful boys were chosen . " Guardians were "born" - of nobility or "hard-working." The guards were fairly rewarded, inheriting the function, seat and land as a servant, free of rent and decimal tax. more valiant and meritorious guards, whose function was exceptionally responsible.
Two main routes converged at the Hajnowska Guard, from Narew and from Bielsko. Next - the royal road led to Białowieża, ran through the border of the guard Hajnowska and Leśniańska, the current road from Hajnówka to Białowieża. In Hajnowska Guards, royal invasions were entered into the Forest.
The wars of the second half of the seventeenth century brought great destruction. A dramatic description of their effects is presented in the Inventory of Bialowieza Forestry from 1670, "trash-poor villages", "no one you have undergone", "the ground is covered with brushwood" . In this situation, there was no way to protect the Forest.
The economic ordering of the Forest and the decisive tightening of its protection took place only in the times of Augustus II. For better protection, the guard was increased to 150 people, its status was strengthened, and security guards were located around the borders. In 1775, the forest was divided into 13 guards, precisely defining their borders, the offices of sworn guards and riflemen, and village villages and key villages were illustrated. The Hajnowska and Leśniańska Guard was established. To their western part belonged then areas of today's districts of Hajnówka: Hajnowszczyzna, Kozi Przeskok ( riflemen's collection : Nikon Bujnowski and Piotr Orzechowski, current neighborhoods of Kołodzieja and Nowowarszawska streets ), Leśne ( seat of the guard, and later the gunner)) and Judzianka. In addition, today's villages of Hajnówka commune: Dubiny, Lipiny (key village ) ... King August III in 1758 granted, thanks to Jan Bernard Szubert, guardian of the Forest ... shrubs on the ground ... at Lipin's ceremony ... " ), Postołowo ( Strzelce village inhabited by two guards: Maxim Owerczuk and Karol Kuczyński ), Sowiny Hrud ( shooting village of Dawid Kaliszko, Paweł Janowski and Antoni Janowski - Sunday brothers, which sit on one ground ) and Peryewo (the cave on which 1792 land was for 2 royal shooters ).
The guardians in the Skarbosławka and the Lysna River districts (Leśna) already register the Bialowieza Forest Inventory from 1670. The description of the Forestry from 1764 mentions Szreytorowicz in Hajnowszczyzna, and in 1794 - Krzysztof Szretterowicz, the same probably a person. Szretterowie coat of arms Szeptyckich hereditary took over the office of the guard Hajnowska. The last guard of the Szretter family was Antoni, the son of Jakub. For over 70 years and possibly longer, the Szretterowie served Polish kings and the Forest.
After the Third Partition, the Białowieża Forest was under Russian rule. For years, the guards have been taught the protection of the Forest, they are still vigilant, but they are still restless. News of the uprising and the heroic deeds of the Poles came from the wide world. At the order of the Białowieża Forest Inspector Eugeniusz de Ronke, a 300-strong insurgent unit formed from forestry staff. De Ronke (a Swiss by origin and a hot Polish patriot by choice) mobilized them with an appeal sent to all guards with an order to appear with their subordinate forestry staff on May 3, 1831 - under penalty of death. 109 forestry shooters joined the uprising, the last royal guard of the Hajnowska Guard, Antoni Szretter, fought for independence.
The roar of gunfire was heard far away in the Forest, when on May 23, 1831, the insurgent unit of General Dezydery Chłapowski fought a battle in Hajnowszczyzna with a unit of the tsarist army of General Linden. After two attacks, the enemy was defeated. In the roadside forests of the royal route to Bialowieza, the final stage of the battle took place, culminating in the victory of General Chłapowski.
Most of the participants of the uprising in the Bialowieza Forest had to leave the country - those who fell into the hands of the Russian protectors, by the verdict of Grodno governor Murawyov, were deported to Siberia. The tsarist administration introduced new people to the place taking part in the creation of the protection services of the Forest. In 1863, another national uprising embraced the Forest, which gives shelter to the insurgent units: Rogiński, Duchiński, Wróblewski, and Stravinsky. Residents terrified with the cruelty of Murawiow do not show great enthusiasm, join the fight full of dilemmas, in a sense of patriotic duty, but also fear. Sometimes in the wilderness of the forest one could probably hear the rush of rifle bullets and the roar of cannons, and armed fights for the independence of our land were fought.
During the uprisings, many forest seats were completely burnt. When the Hajnowskie Forestry was established in 1846, a new Forestry building was erected at the time of the tsarist period. The land of the former Guard, issued by the tsarist in 1869, was given to twelve owners. The ancestors of today's Hajnów families settled here: Kicelów, Kowszyłów, Melcer, Panasiuk, Sawicki, Wołczyków, Stepaniuk, Sidoruk and Bujnowski. The foresters were also two gardeners: Kowszyło and Stasinkiewicz. On the former Kozi Przeskok, the separate residences of Benedykt Orzechowski, Daniil Bujnowski and Anton Orzechowski were located. Their lands were parallel to the Leśna River. From Kozi Przeskok to the estate of Ivan Sawicki, there was a road leading, along with the Forestry, intersecting with the tsarist tract. The settled Hajnówka and Kozi Przeskoku areas were 12,
The Russian tsars also devoted themselves to the pleasures of hunting in the Bialowieza Forest. Residents of the forestry Hajnowskiego and Kozi Przeskoku served as touts. The tsars: Alexander II, Nicholas I and their guests often laid down dozens of bison, elks and deer, and then wonderful antlers, heads and skins decorated the chambers of the Romanow family residence built in Białowieża.
In 1888, the Forest became part of the tsar's apache and until the First World War it was completely subjugated to the hunting of the Russian tsars. For the convenience of the tsars in 1894, a railway from Bielsk Podlaski, extended in 1897 to Białowieża, to the Tsar's palace, was brought here. In 1909, a railway line from Siedlce to Wołkowyska was passed through Hajnówka. An unusual event was the view of a steam locomotive, which amazed and terrified local residents. The forest was boiling. Railway embankments were built, transporting the land with horse-drawn carts, supplementing with wheelbarrows. A track was being made, which the steam engine with the field kitchen was slowly moving. Hard work was rewarded with warm borscht, white bread and red rubles.
At the behest of the Tsar, a road from Bielsk Podlaski to Białowieża was built, two caches and a dozen or so residential houses were built next to it. A small wooden railway station was built for the needs of the railway. Soon, a magnificent brick railway station was built. Hajnówka has become an important transport hub. To build roads and railways, the local population was employed, specialists from Russia were brought in. Many of them have remained here forever, tying professionally with the railway service. A settlement of about 600 inhabitants was established.
In July 1915, the Russians were forced to leave Poland and the western governorate of the Romanov Empire. In order to prevent the Germans from securing food, the general staff chose the tactics of scorched earth - the utter destruction of everything that could be used by the Germans. It was announced that everything would be burned and razed to the ground, and calls for life to escape into the depths of Russia. Undecided people were intimidated, spreading rumors about the bestial and cruel handling of Germans with civilians. Through Hajnówka to Prużany, he ran an endless procession of iron wagons. Hajnowianie left their homes, taking with them only the most needed and valuable things and provisions. They went to unknown with all their families with their belongings. Some residents of Kozi Przeskoku and Hajnówka left, almost everyone from Leśna,
Cossacks immediately set fire to deserted farms, a sheaf of straw, transferring fire to other buildings. The wooden railway station burned down, the forestry office and almost all of the local houses were burned. The inn and just four houses remained in the village of Górna (current street name). The tormentors survived the cold, hunger and hell of the Russian revolution, and lost their loved ones there. It was another, tragic period in the history of the Hajnów population, the most numerous group of trekkers were Belarussians. Most of the evacuees, decimated by disease, war and hunger, did not return.
The forest was taken by Germans and they began intensive exploitation of forest resources. In Hajnówka, they built two sawmills, a dry wood distillation plant, a network of narrow-gauge forest railways and a steam engine with repair shops. On the road to Białowieża, several buildings were created for the administration of the German board and social facilities: a bakery, a laundry, a bathhouse, a casino, a cinema. There were barracks for civilian employees, French and Russian prisoners employed in the construction of industrial plants, and later in the logging of the Forest.
It was 1918. The Germans left the forest, and Hajnówka lost among forests, far away on the eastern periphery of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, it remained practically without people, but with full industrial garrisons. In 1919, the government took over German remains, the settlement at that time had 118 residents, including 51 women and 67 men. Industrial plants were state-owned and leased to private companies. The English company The Century European Timber Corporation, colloquially known as Centura, took sawmills and forest queues for hire, focusing on the export of the maximum amount of wood. Centura was tempted by good wages to get employees, and everyone was waiting for work there, for many years Hajnówka was a promised land, the prospect of work and bread attracted people from all over Poland. they were building houses hastily. During one night, dugouts and sawdust were formed. Smoke from the chimney according to the then law guaranteed the inviolability of the house. The factory streets were built with the width of the shoulder gauge, new districts were created.
The fortunate economy of the Century forced the Polish side to break the contract in 1929. It involved paying 1.5 million pounds, but the forest survived further destruction. in Białowieża.
At the beginning of the 1920s, Hajnówka was a small settlement with a post office, a police station and several shops. A church was established in the building of the former German cinema, a synagogue was established, in time a private Orthodox chapel was organized - a "temporary house." There were several shops and craft workshops, three primary schools and the famous State School of Wood Industry, which was the director of many years Jozef Bołoz taught Polish language and developed interest in theatrical art, his disciple and actor of the theater theater was Stefan Treugutt, a well-known scientist, who was a friend of Ignacy Mościcki. Polish theater critic.
Tadeusz Rakowiecki, a physician and organizer of the Hajnówka Health Fund, became a Hajnowiec in 1925. Astronomer, author of numerous scientific publications and the two-volume work "Roads of planets and comets" created in Hajnówka in 1929, the basic university textbook of the Astronomy Chair until the 1970s. In Gutenberg's Encyclopedia inscribed as a contemporary Polish writer, due to numerous reviews and publications "Duma o Hetman Stefan Żeromski "(1909) and" Critical Sketches on the Art of Żeromski "(1910) .The wife, Pelagia Rakowiecka, was the initiator of the creation of the public library. In many social organizations, in association for the health of our residents and improved sanitary conditions led to the construction of standard these times of houses and a new housing estate.
Hajnówka in the thirties is a small settlement, which, according to the government's intentions, was to become the power of the wood industry. In 1934, she became a commune. The construction of the sawmill was started, new sawmill halls were built. Industrial plants were modernized, craft workshops were established. They improved the production of the factory: turpentine - Porowskis' brothers and chemical - dry wood distillation. Wilno engineers came here to plan its expansion. Soon a housing cooperative was established, which planned new neighborhoods. The newly created Dom Leśnik them. J. Piłsudski was teeming with cultural and social life, the tone of which came from Vilnius. There were numerous meetings with the bridge, learning the most fashionable rumba. Far away in the Forest, there was an echo of the music of organized balls: New Year's, occasional or charity. Income was allocated to social assistance and educational and cultural activities. Under the direction of the actors who came to Hajnówka with the touring theater troupe of Czesława and Jerzy Siekierzyński, an amateur theater operated. The Universal University functioned. From the social contributions of the organization, a film camera was purchased and a cinema was opened.
The House of Culture associated organizations with a forest profile, the dominant Family of the Forester and the Prepared Military of Foresters. In Hajnówka there were a number of social organizations and associations, including Preparation of Military Railwaymen, Shooter, Anti-Air and Anti-Air Defense League, Gymnastic Society "Sokół", Society of Workers' Universities, Association of Reservists and Former Military, Society of Friends of Hajnówka. , in which they focused their activities, created hand-held libraries, organized academies and occasional meetings.The roadside tavern was replaced by numerous restaurants, beer houses, a pastry shop and an official casino.
Hajnówka has become not only an industrial power, but also an important cultural and tourist center. The "Dancing - Narty - Bridż" train ran to Białowieża and was launched by the Warsaw Directorate of State Railways.
The nationwide economic crisis has affected the workers of Hajnów factories. Black Hajnowiec days brought massive redundancies, wage cuts. It irritated the payment of substitute wages with vouchers, which are the means of payment in selected private stores. Hajnówka was out. Workers organized marches carrying flags and protest slogans. Desperate chemical factory workers protested with a five-day hunger strike. Strikes and collective appearances took place in 1929-1939. On the eve of World War II, Hajnówka had about 17 thousand inhabitants.
On September 1, 1939, German airplanes bombed Bialowieza and Hajnówka, and the whistling of sirens of sawmills swept through the area. On 17 September, Germans entered, German tanks entered. After a few days, the Germans withdrew, and the Soviet army entered. Hajnówka was under Soviet occupation, the NKVD established a new social order. In June 1941, Hajnówka was under German occupation, and the order was determined by the Gestapo.
During the Soviet occupation, the civilian population: foresters, teachers, state administration employees, intelligentsia families and families recognized as wealthier, were massively deported deep into the USSR. During the German occupation, a significant part of the Hajnów youth was deported to heavy forced labor in Germany. Many Hajnowiecians were sent to concentration camps in Ravensbruck, Oświęcim and Treblinka. A one-day ghetto was set up for the Jews, they were gathered at the Drzew Drzewna Square, setting a huge amount of contribution in gold and currency. Although the order of the Germans was jointly and severally fulfilled, the next day they were transported to Pruzhany, and from there to Treblinka, where their fate was fulfilled in August 1941.
The industrial plants, the tsarist railway station, the building of the forest railway depot, workshops and the library of the State School of Timber Industry have been destroyed. It is impossible to calculate war losses.
The liberation of Hajnówka took place on July 18, 1944. The population was then around 8,000. In 1950, Hajnówka received city rights, and in the years 1954 - 1957 it was the seat of poviat authorities. Currently, the city has over 23,000 inhabitants. From January 1, 1999, it is the seat of the poviat. For several years, the Off-site Department of Environmental Engineering at Białystok University of Technology has been operating here.
Hajnówka is an exceptional city. Tourists are attracted by the richness of nature, the unique charm of the Bialowieza Forest and the Saint. Trinity. Musicians and connoisseurs of music are attracted by the Orthodox Music Festivals held each year, Podlasie Chamber and Organ Music Festivals, Open-air Design Studies and the Artists in Nature Association. Modern art is exhibited by numerous galleries, including: Hayno, Museum of Belarusian Culture, Hajnowski Dom Kultury , The City Public Library, sport sympathizers participate in the competitions of almost all sports disciplines which are under the patronage of the Sports and Recreation Center in Hajnówka and clubs, including the Sports Club "Puszcza Hajnówka" and the Hajnowski Sports Club "Żubr". More and more runners are attracted by the Hajnowski Half Marathon organized since 2000. Visitors to Hajnówka tempt with quality: solid wood furniture, various carpentry products and parquet floors as well as original accessories made of wood, wicker and straw. The buyers find the Hamech Plant driers, which are not the only Hajnówka patent product on the European market, or charcoal produced for years, now the product of Gryfskand. Gourmets will find fine July or buckwheat honey from forest poultry, dairy products with a regional brand - a bison sign, or tea and spices with the "Runo" sign. or charcoal produced for years, now a product of Gryfskand. Gourmets will find fine July or buckwheat honey from forest poultry, dairy products with a regional brand - a bison sign, or tea and spices with the "Runo" sign. or charcoal produced for years, now a product of Gryfskand. Gourmets will find fine July or buckwheat honey from forest poultry, dairy products with a regional brand - a bison sign, or tea and spices with the "Runo" sign.
Hajnówka located in an extremely picturesque, attractive tourist, south-eastern part of the Podlasie Voivodship, in the vicinity of the Białowieża National Park and Białowieża Primeval Forest, in the area of the Green Lungs of Poland and the eastern border of the European Union is a friendly and open city, the only one with such a diverse nationality, religion and tradition and culture.