District Office Hajnówka
The city is a tourist center (forests, narrow-gauge railway) and a Belarusian minority center (thanks to the Belarusian Culture Museum), who according to the 2007 census constitute 26.41% of inhabitants in Hajnówka.
In the city there is a branch of the Forest Department of Białystok University of Technology, which educates students in the field of Forestry. It is also a center of the wood industry and a forestry machine label. There are establishments here: knitting, clothing, forest and food processing.
There are 5 elementary schools in the city, two state high schools (including one with the additional teaching of the Belarusian language - LO from DNJB), a vocational school team and a non-public team of economic schools (including high school). There is also a Post-Secondary School of Psalmists and a Vocational Improvement Center. Every year, in May, the city hosts the International Festival "Hajnowskie Dni Muzyki Cerkiewnej".
In the city there is also the seat of the International Festival of Orthodox Music "Hajnówka" in Bialystok. Hajnówka is located on the Podlasie Lowland, in the south-eastern part of the Podlasie Voivodeship, on the western edge of the Białowieża Primeval Forest.
The area around Hajnówka is a vast plain covered with forests, meadows and cultivated fields. The river Leśna Prawa, the tributary of the Bug flows through the city. Hajnówka grew out of the settlement of a forest guard, established in the 16th century. In 1589, the constitution "Ordinato on royal preserve" divided royal goods into state and table goods. The Bialowieza Forest entered the table goods intended for the maintenance of the royal court and for this reason was particularly protected. The importance of the Hajnowska Guard grew. After the Third Partition of Poland, Hajnówka found herself with the Białowieża Primeval Forest in the Russian Partition. In 1888, the Bialowieza Forest was transferred to the management of tsarist domains. In the years 1894-1906, the railway from Bielsk Podlaski to Białowieża and from Siedlce through Hajnówka to Wołkowyska was built. Hajnówka became a railway junction. Around 1900, a road from Bielsk Podlaski to Białowieża was built, which ran through Hajnówka. During World War I, in 1915, the Germans occupied the Bia³owie¿a Forest and started exploiting it. They built two sawmills in Hajnówka, a dry wood distillation plant, a narrow-gauge forestry node, repair workshops, and in the forest about 90 km of railway tracks used for transporting timber from the Bialowieza Forest. The Polish authorities took over Hajnówka in 1919. Industrial plants were state-owned and leased, only the "Terebenthen" factory went into private hands. For several years, the Forest Company, the queue and sawmills in Hajnówka was leased by the English company The Century European Timber Corporation. A wave of people from various parts of Poland came to Hajnówka. In addition, the Belarussian division of General Bułak-Bałachowicz has been dissolved here, which soldiers settled in Hajnówka and Białowieża. A specific dialectal and cultural conglomerate was formed, in which Poles constituted about 70% of the population. The newcomers occupied barracks, built wooden houses, sawdust and dugouts. The streets were marked out with the width of human arms spacing. Slowly, cultural and social life began to develop. A Roman Catholic parish was established, three elementary schools, the State School of Timber Industry, a dormitory, a house of culture, workers' housing estates, a post office, a pharmacy, a hotel, a public library, two cinemas, Społem Cooperative Cooperative, Sickness Fund. The streets were marked out with the width of human arms spacing. Slowly, cultural and social life began to develop. A Roman Catholic parish was established, three elementary schools, the State School of Timber Industry, a dormitory, a house of culture, workers' housing estates, a post office, a pharmacy, a hotel, a public library, two cinemas, Społem Cooperative Cooperative, Sickness Fund. The streets were marked out with the width of human arms spacing. Slowly, cultural and social life began to develop. A Roman Catholic parish was established, three elementary schools, the State School of Timber Industry, a dormitory, a house of culture, workers' housing estates, a post office, a pharmacy, a hotel, a public library, two cinemas, Społem Cooperative Cooperative, Sickness Fund.
The Jews built a synagogue and organized a religious school. The Orthodox population from 1925 had a "temporary" chapel in a private home. The local physician and self-taught astronomer Dr. Tadeusz Rakowiecki published a two-volume work entitled Roads of planets and comets. In the field of economy, four industrial plants dominated: Chemical Plant, Forest Railway Authority, Terebenthen and Zakłady Drzewne Lasów Państwowych, which were expanded, modernly organized and mechanized so that in 1938 they were the largest industrial plant and employed 1521 people. In total, 1947 people worked in the Hajnówka industrial plant. Hajnówka was the second largest industrial center in the province. Craft developed. The settlement was inhabited by Poles, Byelorussians, Russians, Ukrainians, Jews, Germans.
The Second World War and occupation stopped the development of the settlement. Production plants, part of the city, station and railway tracks have been destroyed. About 700 inhabitants died. The liberation of Hajnówka took place on July 18, 1944. After the war, destroyed plants were rebuilt, most streets were rebuilt, eight schools were erected, four churches of various denominations, a cultural center, two hospitals, a regional clinic, a water treatment station, a swimming pool, and public transport was introduced. Hajnówka received city rights in 1951, and in the years 1954-1975 it was the seat of poviat authorities. In total, the city has 12 industrial plants and approx. 280 craft enterprises. A railway line from Siedlce to Siemianówka (state border) runs through Hajnówka. The circular roads from Hajnówka lead in the direction of: Białowieża (18 km), Białystok through Narew (62 km), Siemiatycze by Kleszczele (62 km), Bielska Podlaski (27 km), Siemianówki through Narewka (23 km). In 2007, Belarusian was introduced as an auxiliary language in contacts with municipal authorities.
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